Palestinian Factions and their impact in Establishing the National Unity

Discussion Committee: 
Prof. Abdul Sattar Qasem/supervisor
Dr. Ateyah Musleh/external examiner
Dr. Nayef Abu Khalf/internal examiner
Prof. Abdul Sattar Qasem/supervisor
Amjad Jallad
This study aims to focus on the role of the Palestinian factions in dismantling the national unity of the Palestinian people, and the contribution of those factions in weakening the position of the Palestinian struggle by their internal conflicts that led to the disintegration of the cohesion of both social and moral textures, and the attenuation of the national unity among the hearts of large segments of the Palestinian people. This study also aims to shed light on the social and moral Palestinians, texture before and after the emergence of the Palestinian factions، to know the reasons and the history of appearance of the main Palestinian factions, to highlight their programs, to identify the factions role in the most important historical stations during the history of the Palestinian crises, to state the importance of uniting the Palestinian factions on a national program or a clear national charter، and to point to the obstacles that cause those warring factions not reaching to the points of convergence. This study has differentiated between the existence of real Palestinian factions and organizations and other factions that still live a regulatory status since their inception (i.e. they did not reach the stage of regulation and becoming real organizations). It also can be argued that in terms of performance they all share one loyalty characteristic that is the tribal fanatic. The study also aims to show that many splits، disagreements، conflicts (via military or media) ، and polarization have contributed to creating a state of fragmentation among the Palestinian people. On the other hand, these factions had their own way and internal national awareness programs to maintain the cause of the Palestinian people as occupied people trying to break free. It was clear shown from this thesis that some factions have retreated away from their principles in an unprecedented way. They justified this under the umbrella pragmatic and realistic thinking. And that this declination has witnessed a state of contradiction and tides. The results showed the extent of nervousness experienced by those factions. This was one of the causes of conflicts among them until they reached the state of absence of any seriousness from these factions toward rapprochement، unity or reconciliation. On the Arab level, this study showed the political disparity of the Arab regimes from one faction and another، and that are two poles led those countries to the state of becoming politically divided. This has contributed to strengthening each faction by the state / states supporting it، and to solidify about its position. So، these countries have created a state of balance of power among the factions making it so difficult to be enable one faction to impose his political vision on the other factions. The recent Arab uprisings (Arab Spring) have contributed to the deepening of the division and it crystallized and came up with new different political regimes. The study showed that the Hamas takeover of the Gaza Strip has embarrassed the Palestinian political equation and provided Hamas a position to spread and impose its political and military vision in Gaza. At the same time, it embarrassed Authority in Ramallah by not enabling them to leave the entire Gaza Strip. In light of the above results, the researcher came up with the following recommendations: 1. Necessity that all the Palestinian spectrum contribute to the deployment of political and religious awareness in the Palestinian society and the Arab communities، and to warn of the danger of differences، splits and disintegration of national unity and community unity and the importance to reconcile and unite to cobble breach made in the Palestinian and Arab social and moral Texture. 2. Need to consolidate and focus on speech that is oriented towards and against the occupation only، and to stop media attacks that contribute to frustrate the Palestinian citizen and sow factional pride and blind party loyalty among the various segments. 3. The dialogue among the various factions must not stop no matter how long until it takes. This helps the Palestinian people to remain in a state of hope. It is unreasonable that the Zionist enemy is given a chance of eternal negotiations، while the short sessions of dialogues factions fail. 4. They should take advantage of the strengths of each faction. Various Palestinian factions combined strengths enable them to strengthen the Palestinian position in the face of intransigence and arrogance of the Israeli occupation. On the one hand they Fateh can exert pressure on the Palestinian leadership to wave a stick of stopping the security coordination with the Israelis، on the other hand, can make use of the military factions in Gaza in its negotiations with the Zionist side. 5. People must seriously differentiate between the Palestinian Authority and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), and use that as a bargaining weapon in the political and military battle with the Zionist enemy. 6. Oslo agreement is not a sacred agreement as long as the commitment by being one-sided. 7. The need for a wise young national leadership stands at the same distance from the entire spectrum of Palestinian political color and operate in a clear national agenda. 8. Each faction must announce the independence of its decision because one of the most important obstacles facing the national unity is the lack of seriousness of the leadership of the parties to reach to a one word، and the submission of each party to internal and external pressures. 9. Palestinian reconciliation cannot take place or see the light without referring to a single reference they all agree upon, only then reconciliation and the return of community cohesion and achieving national unity within Palestinian society and the Arab communities all can take place. Historically, the solution lies in a political and religious authority and one back with everyone to resolve differences.
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