Bio-climate Boundaries of Vegetation in Palestine (Case study: Cross Section, Jaffa-Jericho

Discussion Committee: 
Prof. Mohamad Abu Safat/supervisor
Prof. Kamal Abdel-Fattah/external examiner
Dr. Hasan Abu Qaoud/internal examinr
Prof. Mohamad Abu Safat/supervisor
Rasmi Yahya Hamad Al-Omari
This study of Bio-climate Boundaries of Vegetation in Palestine aims to investigate the impact of environmental factors (climate, topography) on the vegetation, density, distribution of natural plants within the six natural sections of the study (costal plan, semi-costal plan, western slopes, mountaintops, eastern Slopes, and valleye) represented by graphs of the climate elements and average hight of the prevailing plant in each region. It also aims to specify the most important kinds of the plants by topo-vegetarian sectors for all regions of study to show the bio-climate boundaries for the forests natural plants and its contents of plants diversity. The study confirms the natural countenance of the region, represented by its geological conformation and morphology and the most important 15 prevailing soils types like Rendzina and terra rossa, the study also clarifies the important climate elements among topographical divisions represented by (temperatures, rain, sun radiation, Humidity and wind). Showing their impact on vegetation and its important forms that prevailing in each topographical sector of the differents environments of Arboreal and annual vegetation. The most important results of the study: 1- Affirmation of the diversity and density and hight of plants in the region received enough ammounts of railfall with moderated temperatures and saving high soil moisture. 2- Affirmation of the attitude in determining the thermal and rain bio-climate boundaries prevailing in the region of study as folows: • The bio-climate boundaries of Ceratonia siliqua, Quercus, Sonchus oleraceu, and Pinus, exist withen the rain boundary 350-650 mm/ year in semi-costal plan, western slopes, and mountaintops. • Prosopis farcta, Acacia, Retama, Tamarix aphylla, and Sarcopoterium are considered to grow withen the rain boundary 150-200 mm/year. • The bio-climate boundaries of Tamarix، Bambusa vulgaris, Lycium barbarum, Anabasis, and Atriplex exist up to the rain boundary 160 mm/year in the valleys. • The thermal bio-climate boundaries of Acacia، Bambusa vulgaris, Anabasis and Alhagi starts at regions of altitude range -400 to -300 m below sea level. • Some of plants like Pistacia، Artemisia, Teucrium, Sarcopoterium, and Rhamnus frangula exists at altitudes ranges from 0 to 500 m above sea level in eastern Slope. • The thermal boundaries of costal plane plants like Artemisia and Ficus sycomorus exist at altitude 100 m above sea level. • The boundaries of dense vegetation of Pinus forests in semi costal plane and western slopes starts at altitudes ranges from 150 to 450 m above sea level. • The bio-climate boundaries of natural forests that include Acer buergerianum, Crataegus, Cercis, and planted forests of pinus in mountaintops exist at altitudes ranges from 500 to 700 m above sea level. The study recommended decision makers to pay attention to and maintain the eastern slopes including development plans and slopes forestration. It also invites phacutical researchers to develop studies and experiments based on natural plants and inpecting the possibility of the production of medicines.
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