Water Quality Modeling of Al-Qilt Stream

Discussion Committee: 
Dr. Abdel Fattah Hasan / Supervisor
Dr. Sameer Shadeed / Co-Supervisor
Dr. Subhi Samhan / Internal Examiner
Dr. Hafez Shaheen / External Examiner
Dr. Abdel Fattah Hasan / Supervisor
Dr. Sameer Shadeed / Co-Supervisor
Hani Adel Shraideh
Surface water resources are very limited in Palestine, so special interest must be given to the quantity and quality of such valuable resources. Al-Qilt streamwater is considered as essential source for agricultural uses. The water quality of Al-Qilt stream is subjected to several pollutions that severely affect and limit the full utilization of such valuable source. This thesis focused on water quality modeling of Al-Qilt streamwater considering the dissolved oxygen as a key quality parameter. The potential pollution sources in the area were explored. Using GIS shapefiles, and Google earth maps, several detailed maps, and elevation profile was created to describe the properties of the catchment with focusing on the main stream. Samples were collected regularly from the five selected locations on a monthly periodic time intervals. For the five locations, on site tests for the following parameters (DO, pH, Temp, TDS and EC) had been conducted. Laboratory analyses for (BOD5, BOD20, COD, Total Nitrogen (TN), Ammonium, Nitrate, Nitrite, and Total Suspended solids (TSS)) were performed for all the samples in PWA’s laboratory. A water quality model (QUAL2Kw) was used and three different scenarios were assessed and simulated to predict the dissolved oxygen concentration levels along the stream. Four key input parameters controlled the modeling process; these are Reaeration, Deoxygenation, Nitrification, and Denitrification. The first scenario of the model simulated the current situation of Al-Qilt streamwater, the second scenario simulated the addition of stepped weirs at certain locations to improve the reaeration process, and the third scenario simulated the construction of a wastewater treatment plant to treat the raw wastewater flowing from Qalandia and Al-Ram region. The results of the reaeration, deoxygenation, and nitrification rates were much higher than the typical range. Results from the three model scenarios confirmed that the stream capable to conduct significant self remediation process that raised the dissolved oxygen concentrations up to the saturation levels. The proposed reaeration stepped weirs was found as suitable solution to improve the quality of water upstream and raised the dissolved oxygen concentrations from 2.5 mg/L up to around 7.5 mg/L. The effects of the WWTP for the flow running from Qalandia region were limited on the DO levels with only 4.7% raise.  
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