Tulkarem and its Vicinity 1281 - 1337 A.H / 1864 – 1918 A.D

Discussion Committee: 
Dr. Ameen Abu Baker
Mohammad Bader Abdel Raheem
This study deals with the local history of Tulkarm and vicinity during the Ottoman Turks systems period. Since the issue of the Ottoman states law in 1864 AD/ 1281H and until the departure of the Ottoman rule after its defeat in World War I in 1918 AD/ 1337 H entitled ‘Economic and social life in Tulkarm and vicinity’. This study is limited to the Mediterranean coast from Arab Nfi’at village to Biyar Adas between Jaffa and Haifa harbours in the west to the borders of Nablus Lewa, and between Jenin Qadha’ and Jaffa and Ramla Qadha’. This location had an economic and military importance that helped in the growth and development of Tulkarm and the region in general. The region was consisted of three Nahias, Asha’rawia Al-Gharbya Nahia that Tulkarm was one of its villages, Bani Sa’b Nahia and Wadi Asha’ir Al-Gharbi which was under the control of Mutasrifiat Albalqa’ and Nablus was its headquater, one of the Alwiats of wilait Syria from 1863 AD/ 1281 H to 1884 AD/ 1302 H. In that year, Tulkarm region became Qadha’ and Tulkarm became the centre of this Qadha’. It was formed from Asha’rawia Al-Gharbia Nahia, Bani Sa’b Nahia, and Wadi Asha’ir Al- Gharbi Nahia. Then, Al-Haram Nahia annexed to it in 1911AD. An administrative civilian system was found in the Qadha’ which was consisted of Al-Qa’maqam and Alqadha’ Administration Council and Nawahis’ administrators as well as other governmental offices such as Alma’aref, Alnufus, Atabo, and Telegraph offices. Judicial and military systems were also found in Alqadha’. The abundance of rain water, fertile soil and moderate climate helped in creating developed agriculture after Ibrahim Basha campaign in Palestine. The region also witnessed economic development after the half of the nineteenth century and a strong agricultural and commercial movement was started due to the spread of safety and control which the Ottoman Turks Hamiat offered. Moreover, the laws issued by the Ottoman country concerning the lands law such as Alaradhi and Atabo laws which led to increase the land profitability and the competition to own it. This had a negative side effect on the region because the Zionist movement interested in buying land in the region. The region produced different types of winter and summer cereals and exported them abroad. It also planted winter and summer vegetables and tree like olive and almond trees in the internal areas and citrus trees in the coastal areas and the abundance was exported abroad. In addition, it grew commercial crops and tobacco. Besides, people interested in raising work animals such as horses, bulls and donkeys and double use animals such as cows, bulls, camels sheep, goats, rabbits and poultry. Concerning the existed industries and crafts, they were simple and depended on labours and animals, and sons inherited them from their fathers and grandfathers. Inhabitants exchanged many currencies in trade transactions and the most important was the Ottomans currency such as gold lira, Riyal Majedi, shilling, Metlik, Barah, and foreign currencies such as English and French Lira. The Ottoman Turks were interested in raising taxes which were imposed on citizens like Al-Osher, jezia Alwerko, Al-Qaidia, and Alqalameya tax which had many negative side effects on citizens and lands. The urban formed the most inhabitants of the region which lie mostly in villages on the hills and mountains except villages of the coastal region. The village was divided into Harat or Mahlat and named according to its location or named after the major families. The region families refer to Bani Sa’b origin who inhabited the region in ancient times from Cinda and Jutham Tribe and Amela from Kahlan Alqahtania during the Islamic conquest. Moreover, these families separated into families and tribes which scattered in the region. Most names of the families that inhabited the region were known from the records of Almahkama Ashar’ya of Nablus and Tulkarm. The economic and political conditions led to the appearance of many local, powerful families and leaderships in the region such as Albarqawi family that took over Wadi Asha’ir Algharbi, Aljusi family that ruled Bani Sa’b Nahia and Tuqan family that compete Aljusi family to rule Bani Sa’b. This competition between families led to bloody clashes which forced the Ottoman State to overcome their power during the period of systems and applied the system of central control, but these families was able to adapt the new situation because of their richness and previous power and they were able to own vast stretches of land. During the Ottoman Turks period, education was only through Alkatateeb, and the state didn’t care about education affairs and left this to the people. And during the systems age, the Ottoman State offered special care to education. Then, the education laws were issued. Moreover, Alma’aref division and elementary and Arashidia schools were set up all over the State. The study district had a considerable portion of that. So elementary Katateeb were established in most of the region villages as well as Arashidia School in Qasabet Tulkarm. Many intellectuals and scholars were appeared in the region. So they had an important role in economic, social, educational, and political life in the region such as Sa’eed Alkarmi, Ahmad Alkarmi, Ali Mansour Alkarmi, Abdul Lateef Jayousi, Mohammad Ashanti, Mohammad Hatab, A sheikh Aisa Albarqawi, A sheikh Ahmad Abu Odeh Jayousi and Abdul Raheem Hajj Mohammad. Health care was getting worse during the Ottoman rule, and so epidemics and diseases spread in the region. The State wasn’t interested in hygiene at all but at the end of the nineteenth century and at the beginning of the twentieth century. Consequently, a decision was made to use doctors in the municipalities and Aqdia centres. A doctor and hygiene inspector were appointed in Tulkarm Qasaba after 1889 AD / 1307 H.
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