Treatment of Organic Phenolic Contaminant In wastewater Using Activated Carbon From Cypress Products

Discussion Committee: 
Dr. Shehdeh Jodeh / Supervisor
Dr. Ahmad Abu Obed / Co-Supervisor
Prof. Ibrahim Kayaleh / External Examiner
Prof. Marwan Haddad/ Internal Examiner
Dr. Shehdeh Jodeh
Dr. Ahmad Abu Obed
Nadeem Hamdallah Jameel Basalat
This thesis work focuses on preparing and studying the properties of activated carbon produced from cypress fruit by chemical activation using phosphoric acid (H3PO4) as an activating agent, and then studies the mechanism and effectiveness of this carbon to adsorb p-nitrophenol (PNP) from the aqueous solution because the phenolic organic compounds are extremely highly generated from many resources which disposed to sewerage system or valleys without treatments that increase the risk of contaminating water resources. Tubular regulated furnace was used for cypress fruits carbonization at 700°C, then characteristics of prepared activated carbon were studied. Surface area was determined using iodine number and standard calibration curve for iodine number. PNP adsorption onto activated carbon surfaces was studied by batch experiments. The adsorptive properties of cypress fruit activated carbon (CFAC) were investigated in terms of adsorbent dose, PNP concentration, pH, temperature and contact time in a batch system. To investigate the nature of the surface and adsorption capacity of CFAC, Freundlich and Langmuir models were used to study adsorption process at equilibrium. In order to determine whether the adsorption process is chemical or physical, four kinetics models were used to describe the adsorption process, pseudo-first order kinetic models, pseudo-second order kinetic models, second order kinetic models and Intra-particle diffusion model. Results show that the activated carbon produced from cypress fruit gives good percentage yields which reach up to 51.8%. Surface area determined by iodine number showed 524.1 m2/g. Results indicate that the optimum percent of PNP removal was 90.9 % when adsorbent dosage was 0.3g and PNP concentration 80mg/L. Percentage removal of PNP increases when the concentration of PNP decreases as the maximum percentage removal reached 93.2% when PNP concentration was 20mg/L and 0.1g CFAC. At lowering pH from 6 to 2 it was found that PNP adsorbent increases slightly , but the decrease of adsorbent at pH from 6 to 12 is highly extreme. The effect of temperature on adsorption by CFAC has also been investigated in the range of 15-45 °C. The results indicate that the temperature slightly affected the effectiveness of CFAC adsorption. The results showed that the equilibrium time for PNP adsorption is 150min, but most of the adsorption attained within the first ten minute. Results investigate that the produced CFAC adsorption equilibrium is represented by both Frenundlich and Langmuir equilibrium model, but Langmuir model describe very well the adsorption. The main properties of Langmuir equation can be expressed in term of separation factor, RL. The RL equal 0.053 that indicate the adsorption is favorable. The rate constants for the kinetic models were determined and the correlation coefficients were calculated. The kinetic data for adsorbents supports pseudo-second order model for PNP adsorption with correlation coefficient values (R2) and k2qe of 0.9994, 0.502, respectively. The values of the intra-particle diffusion constants and the correlation coefficients imply that the rate of PNP adsorption onto CFAC is limited by mass transfer across the boundary layer.
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