Risk factors of Hepatitis B Transmission in North West Bank: A Case-Control study

Discussion Committee: 
Dr. Zaher Nazzal/supervisor
Dr. Kamal Dumaidi/external examiner
Dr. Samar Musmar / Internal Examiner
Dr. Zaher Nazzal
Inam Mohammad Sobuh
Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a significant health problem in Palestine where the risk factors for the disease transmission and their relative contributions are not well studied. Objectives: The main objective of the study is to find out the risk factors of hepatitis B transmission among the household contact in the north areas of the West Bank; in order to prevent and control this prevalent health problem. Methods: A prospective case-control study was implemented; 100 hepatitis B virus seropositive cases and another 100 seronegative controls. Univariate analysis and logistic regression model were performed to examine probable risk factors of acquisition of hepatitis B infections. Results: Univariate analysis showed HBV case-patients were more likely to report having history of blood transfusion, dental visits, hospitalization, Hejamat, sharing shaving equipments, intravenous drug use, and living abroad. The logistic regression model revealed history of dental visits to be the most significant risk factor, (P value <0.001, OR 5.6; 95% CI 2.8-11.1). Conclusion: The presence of these risk factors emphasizes the need for both increasing the use of hepatitis B vaccines and risk-targeted public health education. Development and enforcement of appropriate infection control guidelines for dental care services are important to prevent HBV transmission. Further research with more sample size is recommended to further explore the rare risk factors.
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