The Portrait Of Muawiyah Bin Abi Sufyan (60H/679AD) In The Book The History Of Damascus City For Ali Bin AL-Hassan Ibn Asakar (571H/1175AD) A Historical Study

Discussion Committee: 
Dr.Adnan Mohammad Melhem - supervisor
Prof. Jamal Joudeh - Internal Examiner
Dr. Othman Tall - External Examiner
Dr.Adnan Mohammad Melhem
Deiaa Sami Mustafa Jawaleel
Ibn Asakir , Ali bin Al –Hasan bin Hebatulla bin Abdullah bin Al-Husayn (571AH/ 1176AD). His surname was Abu Al Qasim. He was born in Damascus (499 AH / 1105AD).He grew up among many educated men and scientists. He was Imam, scientist, narrator , historian and he knew Quraan by heart. He belonged to Al Shaffiya scholars. He learned by many religious educated scholars and scientists and traveled to many scientific centers like Damascus , Baghdad and Kharasan. He published more than sixty books but the most famous was The History of Damascus City. The History of Damascus City characterized with that it had the most narratives stories about Muawiya bin Abu Sufyan since his birth to death. So the researcher studied the life of ibn Asakir and his political, social cultural and methodical background then the researcher aimd to describe a clear picture of the character of Muawiya ibn Abu Sufyan. Ibn Asakir pointed out to the life of Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan and his growth and mentioned that his name was Muawiya ibn Abu Sufyan, Sakhr bin Harb, his surname was Abu Abdul Rahman. His mother was Hind bint Utba. He had five wives , five sons and daughters and seven brothers and sisters. Ibn Asakir pointed to his physical character, he was beautiful , white skin , delightful, had white bread and hair, wide shoulders and wide hips. His upper lip moved up when laughing. Regarding to his moral characteristics, he was tolerant, humble , fair, generous and one of the Arabs resourceful. It was said that he was exaggerating in taking care of his appearance after taking the succession. Ibn Asakir talked also about his Islam , he said that he joined Islam in Omrat Al Aqadya ( 7AH / 628AD). Some said that joined Islam before the conquest of Makka , other said during Am Al Fath ( 8 AH / 629 AD). Muawiya bin Abi Sufyan was eight years old, cultured , narrator and writer of Holy Haddith as well as he was a pot and speaker on the tribune. Ibn Asakir paid attention carefully to his relation with prophet Muhammad peace be upon him , he was writing the revelation and a lot of people heard the Sunnah from him. the narrated about 163 Haddith in addition to that the prophet Muhammad was invocated for him. He also participated with the prophet in Haneen Foray ( 8 AH / 630 AD) and he was given some of the battle's profit. Ibn Asakir mentioned also Muawiya's role in the succession of The Caliph Abu Bakr ( 13 AH / 634 AD).and his participation in AL Yamama battle against Musailama Al Khadab; It was said that Muawiya who killed Musailama. Ibn Asakir mentioned also Muawiya's role in the succession of The Caliph Omar bin Al Khattab (23AH / 643 AD) where he was appointed to be the leader of Fath Qissaria ( ( 19AH / 640 AD) and a leader on the Al Sham after the death of his brother Yazid ( 19 AH / 640 AD); that why he called him the Qisra Of Arab. Ibn Sakir reviewed his behavior during the blockade against Othman bin Affan and murder ( 655 AD / 35 AD). Muawiya suggested to take Othman to AL Sham so he can protect him but Othman refused, So he sent an army to protect Othman. Ibn Asakir revealed his behavior with Ali bin Abu Taleb during allegiance ( 40 AH / 66 AD). And his refusal to the allegiance and he asked for revenge. The most obvious role for him was in Saffin Battle (658 AH / 38 AD) in organizing the group people in Al Sham. Ibn Asakir wrote about the renouncing of Al Hassan bin Ali ( 50AH / 670 AD) to Muawiya ( 661AD / 41 AH). Where the pledge was given to Muawiya , then they called it A'm Al Jamaa'. Ibn Asakir revealed the way that Muawiya followed politically; he was rigid and flexible at one time , he treated his people carefully and he accepted their criticism.He also mention the accusation against Muawiya of killing Abdu Al Rahman bin Khaled bin Al Waleed (666 AD/ 46 AH). Ibn Asakir mentioned his role in killing Higr ibn Oday ( 51AH / 671 AD) because his revolt against Authority at al Kuffa. Ibn Asakir mentioned the way he was managing that he established Dawaween like Dewan Al Hakam And Al Khatem. Then he built a palace called the green Palace and he was the first in employing guards and police. Also rejected to head the judiciary. He also divided the country into guardianships like Al Basrah , Al Amadinah , Egypt and Ta'ef , they are all centered in Damascus. Ibn Asakir reviewed the financial police that he followed and his adherence to ensure the needs of his people like food, money and other things. He also adhered to bring tha Zakat ( the poor due) for poor people and got the tribute. Ibn Asakir showed Muawiya's role in the conquest especially in Al Room (662 AD / 42 AH), Morocco (661 AD / 41 AH ) and Sajestan ( 675 AD / 56 AH). Ibn Asakir was really interested in narrating the stories of the companions like Muawiya's life by using objective vision and revealed his role in history especially the development of his political and intellectual struggle with the succession issue and revealing the most political, civilized achievements after heading the authority.
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