The Poetic Movement in Andalucia (The Era of Beni-Al-Ahmer)

Discussion Committee: 
Prof. Wa'il Abu-Saleh
Aymen Yousef Ibrahim Jarrar
The poetic movement flourished in the kingdom of "Bani Al – Ahmar" which wad established in 637 hejri within many conditions. The most important of which was the political aspect which came as a supporter for a variety of poetic purposes; at the foreground of which were the poetry of fighting for the sake of Allah "Al - Jihad"، and raising the potentials of people. The one who is following up the incidents that took place in that kingdom can obviously see that it passed three stages that had a clear influence in the spread of some poetic purposes more than the other ones: The first stage: This stage is described as having a spread of the enthusiastic poetry that calls for going back to religion and gaining what was lost of the cities of Al – Andalus. This stage lasted five centuries. The second stage: In it، prosperity and wealth spread all over the kingdom. The poetry of wine and compliment as well as the life of luxury shaped this stage that lasted about five centuries. The third stage: It is considered the last stage that is described as having the retreat and fall down. There is also a return to the poetry of enthusiasm and condoling cities. The nature played an important role in the prosperity of this movement. Granada was famous of having a beautiful nature since it had a lot of water، gardens and marvelous palaces. The kings of "Sons of Al - Ahmar" did the same as their former kings of Al – Andalus in that they encouraged arts and sciences and built palaces in which literary meetings and poetic arts were held. These appeared in this era which were the same as the ones in the previous eras. In the forground of which came the description of nature. In its laps، the poets wrote the poems of win and flirt. The poetry of fighting for the sake of Allah "Al - Jihad" boomed as a result of the acceleration that happened in losing their cities. So، they hurried to motivate and strengthen the potentials of people to gain back these lost cities. Their poems of compliment focused mostly on clarifying the kinship of their kings that reached to the honoured companion Sa’d Ibn Obada Al – Ansari. Their poetry came fresh and smooth، and had kind examples of metaphors and imaginations that cheered hearts. Also، their poets took care of ornamenting their vocabularies، so they obtained different language styles like alliteration، antethesis، quoting in addition to other kinds of eloquence، rhetoric. All these made their vocabularies suitable for the meanings they aimed to convey. Moreover، they used poetic styles which suited their real situation. Mostly، they used the styles of Al – Kamel Al – Wafer، At – taweel and Al – baseet.
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