January 2011 Revolution and its Effect on the Increase of Political Violence in Egypt

Discussion Committee: 
Dr. Othman Othman/suprvisor
Dr. Ayman Talal/external examiner
Dr. Nayef Abu Khalaf/internal examiner
Dr. Othman Othman/suprvisor
Ruba Rasem Mohammad Husien
This study is clarifying the impact of January, 25 Revolution in aggravating the political violence in Egypt. At First, the study will discuss the causes and factors that led to the rise of this phenomenon in the five years that followed the revolution beginning. Secondly, it will show up the effects and consequences of the continuous political violence especially in the presence of a real threat that may exacerbate this phenomenon. The study based on a basic premise clarified that the January 25 Revolution had come as a reaction to the poor economic conditions and tyranny in Egypt. Therefore, it came to improve the economic conditions and to get rid of the long-standing oppression and injustice since the era of President Hosni Mubarak and before. However, the reality was different from the expectations as conditions have gone to the worst after the revolution and the phenomenon of political violence has exploded and spread on a large scale. In sequence, it was turned to a dynamic reciprocal phenomenon escalated at the current stage; especially as it was affected by internal and external factors. The study discussed the phenomenon of political violence before and after the revolution. First, by bringing together the events that preceded it in conjunction with the significant role of the conditions and factors that prevailed before the revolution beginning. Secondly, through illustrating how the government policies and methods used in dealing with the opponents had influenced in starting the political violence which had spread widely and affected large segments of the Egyptian people. The study relied on the descriptive approach, analytical approach, criticized analytical approach and based on the historical approach to prove the hypothesis of the study and answer its questions. The most important conclusion came out from this study is that the phenomenon of political violence was present before the revolution but its severity and frequency increased dramatically after the revolution. As a result, the successive Egyptian authorities on regime had exercised the political violence as a mean to keep its presence in the government and prevent any other oppositions ; therefore, the political violence in Egypt is considered institutional that has been brought by the government’s institutions and bodies which had faced the actions of citizens by using severe repressive policies that did not match with their demonstrations to have the right of chan-+ging the poor conditions which they have suffered over many years. The phenomenon of political violence brought a lot of negative effects that have reflected on all aspects of the Egyptian life. As a result, it became so difficult to deal with those effects and to find solutions for them in the short term. In addition, the political violence has led the Government Security Forces to take over the power in the political arena and it has led to the citizen’s lack of confidence in the ruling regime. The existence of a real opposition was not allowed according to the intimidation of citizens and the practice of violence against them which has led to the fear from engaging in political life. Obviously, getting the supreme power is always the cause of repressing, Marginalizing and working continuously to weaken and intimidate the other parties in order to prevent them from competing with again. For example, internal and external parties did not accept the arrival of the Muslim Brotherhood to the regime; therefore, they quickly worked to frustrate their rule and to show them as a terrorist organization that does not deserve to remain in power. After the arrival of Al-Sisi to the presidency, the situation did not change and Egypt could not get rid of the problems that continued many years and Al-Sisi promised to solve them. According to this situation, the phenomenon of political violence has unexpectedly risen leaving behind effects that was hard to deal with and to find solutions in the current period.
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