"India" In the Perception of Muslim Historians A study in the political, economical, and cultural conditions until the end of the fifth century ( H )

Discussion Committee: 
Dr. Adnan Melhem
Ziyad Jaber Ibrahim Mosallam
The study showed India In the Perception of five famous Muslim historians Who lived between the second and the fifth (H) centuries .These historians are called : Blathuri ( 279 H / 905 AD ) , Tabari ( 310 H / 922 AD ) , Masoudi ( 346 H /957 AD ) , Bayroni ( 440 H / 1048 AD ) . The study showed their Social , Cultural , and Political backgrounds , the Sources of their narrations about India , And the narrator's attitudes and learning . The study had integrated their information about India , so the vision was Completed . The study had pointed that India is a vast land , it was called that Because " Al Sind and Al Hind " who are the grand sons of Noah , peace be upon him . It is the first cradle of humanity where Adam, peace be upon him descended . ALtanuor incident was formed on , The Holy Qura'n mentioned that incident " At Length , behold ! There came our command and the fountains of the earth gushed Forth” . Most people of India have brown skins , wisdom , integrity , and accuracy of the matters The study showed the diversity of the topography of India ; there Are mountains , valleys, rivers , and the sea of India , which many Seas branched from and included more than one thousand Islands according to Masoudi's Information . The study mentioned the names of many decent cities and urban centers . Yaqubi , Masoudi , and Tabari cared about the political life in India in terms of the Establishment of the monarchy . The Country witnessed a state of fragmentation. The Political fragmentation led to The establishment of several mini–states, Muslims have enjoyed Such a great respect. Some kings who ruled some kingdoms were Muslims such as Multan which was ruled by a man from Quraish . The research mentioned the names of kings of India, who had several titles and best Known "Balhar" and "Mehraj" . It also highlighted many aspects of the life of Kings such as the lack of their appearances to the public, and burning them after death, In addition to India's foreign relations, which was characterized by conflicts and Wars with other countries such as Yemen, Persia, Palestine, and Greece. It focused on the sources of economic life in India, Yaqubi and Masoudi Pointed to the diversity of the plant production. There are trees, fruit, sugar cane , Rice , shaft , bamboo , ebony , and nobal trees . The study talked about animals in India. It mentioned animals such as elephants, Rhinoceros, cows , and camels . Masoudi and Bayroni pointed to a variety of industries in India. The most Important industries are arms , clothing , perfume , and ships . There is a lot of minerals and natural wealth, including gold, silver, pearls, coral , iron , and copper . The research pointed to the commercial traffic, where several factors contributed to the prosperity and abundance of plant production, animals, and minerals , it pointed to the prices of goods , means of transportation , money , and taxes . The study has pointed out that the social life of Indian Society made up of several Classes. The most prominents are Brahmins, kstraep , Baishep , and codrp . There is a racial discrimination and persecution of those classes. It pointed to the habits of Indians in marriage, and to the status of the Indian woman who is consulted on several issues. The study drew attention to the habits of Indians in food, and clothing for example, they deprived beef , and they don’t eat wheat . Rice is the main food, The public wear cotton trousers. Bayroni mentioned the many holidays of India and some binoculars happy days. Masoudi also got to talk about the means of entertainment such as dice and chess. “The study provided important information on the country's intellectual life in India. Masoudi referred to the existence of more than one language and joined Bayroni stated in writing tools. The research highlighted the Indian genius in the various sciences, including medicine. Yaqubi , Tabari and Masoudi provided important information . The study showed that Indians had written a lot of familiar books which have been translated into Arabic and mentioned some Indian medicines. Yaqubi , Bayroni , And Masoudi explained the progress of astronomy and referred to a lot of astronomical information . They account numbers and the Indian contingent measure distances and dimensions. It pointed to literature, arts, philosophy, wisdom and the books of superstition. Balathri, Yaqubi , Tabari , and Masoudi mentioned valuable information about the Religious life in India . They believe in Good Almighty and their ideas about the Beginning of time and creation. They pointed to Indian's idea that the planets can mange humans' life. There are a lot of religious differences. The study showed some houses of worship and the holy sites. In the area of Judiciary, Indians have their own evidences to prove the accused. They have A system of sanctions on the basis of caste, and singled out the laws of inheritance and the rights of the dead to their heirs. Balathri, Yaqubi , and Tabari were tracking the movement of the Islamic conquest of India which was started with the year 15 (H) . Then they continued military campaigns during the period of the Umayyad Caliphate. They pointed that the Caliph Omar Bin Abdul Aziz invited the king of India to Islam. They mentioned that some rebels took the state of India as a refuge. Resumed exponential time ruled by the Abbasids, who initiated the elimination of the rebels in India and subjected many of the areas that have already rebelled against the Islamic government. Tabari , Masoudi and Bayroni mentioned the influence of India on the Arab culture . Alot of Indian words entered into Arabic. Some Arabs named their daughters on behalf of India. Many Indian books have been translated in to Arabic. In addition to that, there was a great role in political, scientific, religious, and literary life in the Arab–Islamic state by some people from India called “Al Malawi”
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