Impacts of Trade of Reclaimed Wastewater on Water Management in Palestine

Discussion Committee: 
Dr. Hafez Shaheen /Supervisor
Dr. Nidal Mahmoud (External Examiner
Dr. Ali Shaath (External Examiner
Dr. Anan Jayyousi (Internal Examiner
Dr. Hafez Shaheen
Ahlam Faiez Mohammad Bushkar
Water scarcity is one of the most difficult problems facing Palestine. The lack of a available water resources and competition between different uses; domestic, agricultural and industrial is increasing year by year. Reuse of reclaimed wastewater has great potential to alleviate water scarcity problems and improve crop yield. The treated wastewater resource is an environmental, social and economical good that needs to be managed in appropriate way. Palestine, as in most of the neighboring countries in the region, acknowledges the importance of this resource in improving the water deficit by reusing the reclaimed wastewater in agricultural production, industrial sector and recharging groundwater aquifers. One alternative is to trade the reclaimed wastewater at some locations against water at other locations; or trade-offs this reclaimed wastewater. Trade of reclaimed wastewater has been among the different subjects that were addressed in different meetings and workshops as a commercial and/or political solution to the water scarcity problems in the region. Data related to wastewater quantities, collection, treatment, transportation and reuse has been collected and analyzed as baseline assessment. Pros and Cons analysis method has been used in the analysis as to study the, among other, trade impacts of reclaimed wastewater. Social, environmental and other possible impacts have been also addressed. There are several ways and scenarios for trade of reclaimed wastewater as follows; 1. Trade or trade-off of Reclaimed Wastewater between Palestine and Israel. 2. Trade or trade-off of Reclaimed Wastewater among Palestinian Governorates. 3. Trade-off of Reclaimed Wastewater in Agriculture. 4. Trade of reclaimed wastewater in the industry. Palestinian can decide the best choice according to the strategic plan because the trade of reclaimed wastewater even at the same governorate or between governorates for industrial purposes can be better for the long time, which can be better according to the sustainability vision, on the other side trade with Israelis can be better for the short time plans because this choice can offer an economical income for Palestinians which can help them to pass the financial difficulties they are facing at this time. Reclaimed wastewater is an important unused natural source, it’s important to maximize the benefits that we could get by using such an important source . Multi scenarios can be used depending on many factors: quantities of water, distance from Israel, nature of agriculture and industrial types in every governorate. The price of reclaimed wastewater is an important factor to make these scenarios are applicable. Depending on the interviews with the related people and decision makers at the Ministries of Agriculture (MoA), Environment Quality Authority (EQA), Ministry of National Economy (MoNE) and Palestinian Water Authority (PWA), they all welcomed of the concept of trade of reclaimed wastewater.
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