The Impact of Elections as a mechanism of Democratization on the Path of Democratic Transition in the Arab World

Discussion Committee: 
Dr. Hasan Ayoub/supervisor
Dr. Belal Shoubaki/external examiner
Dr. Ra'ed N'erat/internal examiner
Dr. Hasan Ayoub/supervisor
Majeda Ibraheem Al-Baz
This study deals with the problematic aspects of elections via clarifying the reasons behind losing elections' efficiency and analyzing the factors of transferring the election out of a democratic approach aiming to achieve political and social stability into an instrument of social fragmentation and political division shadowing over the democratic transformation in the Arab countries. The study focuses on the hypothesis stating that the election was not able to play its role in building democratic regimes in the Arab world since it was conducted prior preparing the conditions and requirements supporting efficiency where elections were held under the absence of institutional structure and legal basis governing the electoral process ensuring integrity as well as not selecting an electoral system achieving a fair representation of all members of the society suffering from sectarian and tribal separation which caused an increase in the differences between the electors leading the country into a partisan, sectarian and tribal conflicts. The theoretical framework of the study concentrates on defining the election, its purposes, objectives, terms of ensuring the integrity and fairness in order to relate these terms and needs to the Arab's status quo clarifying the impact of such absence of democratic requirements that constitute a supporter of improving the elections' efficiency taking into account the proprieties of democratic transformation phases through which this study tried to clarify the circumstances and challenges faced by the Arab countries during the transitional phases via theoretical frame. The study used the descriptive analytical method to describe the Elections' failure phenomenon in building democratic institutions along with case studies to analyze the democratic transition experiences in both Egypt and Tunisia via deep study of status quo accompanying the elections in both countries and the factors that were available in the case of Tunisia lacked in Egypt causing the elections' failure functionally. The study concluded that the election is one of the pillars of democracy along with priorities of building the democratic process mainly the constitutional principles and legal basis governing the governmental institutions earning strict legitimacy especially selecting electoral system achieving fair representation for competences within the community. There shall be a trend to deploy supporting culture of democracy, rearrange relations within the community on the exchange of interest base, inspire the community with citizenship, justice and equality values, fight sectarian & tribal feuds, try to integrate & frame the community's members within social institutions aiming to increase their participation in political life and finally achieve stable security per se a pillar of any political and economic progress in order to provide appropriate environment ensuring effective consolidation of the electoral mechanism to strengthen the democratic structure.
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