Evaluation of Qualitative and Quantitative Efficiency of Small Scale Biogas Units in Palestinian Rural Areas

Discussion Committee: 
Prof. Marwan Haddad / Supervisor
Dr. Nidal Mahmoud / External Examiner
Dr.Imad Ibrik / Internal Examiner
Prof. Marwan Haddad / Supervisor
Mahmood Rashad Rashed Mansour
The importance of the study stems from the increasing demands for the natural gas and the tries to find an alternative for this substances. Therefore, Alternative energy is one of the priorities, which seeks to promote human and developed to replace non-renewable sources of energy, of Biogas technology has the potential to provide an alternative to the current unsustainable energy and provide environmental, social, and economic benefits. Biogas is generated when bacteria break down organic waste such as manure, crop residues, or food waste in the absence of oxygen, in a process known as anaerobic digestion. Biogas is a complex mixture of several gases, but the majority of the product is methane(CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The main objective of the study is to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative efficiency of small Scale biogas units in Palestinian rural areas. For achieving the study purpose, an experiment on cow manure , food residues, cow manure mixed with food residues and poultry manure mixed with food residues has been conducted, data has been gathered, codified, entered the computer and statistically analyzed by using the Statistical package of the Social Sciences (SPSS) and the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) program . The study consists of four chapters. The first one starts with an introduction about the necessity of the energy resources in general and the need for the renewable energy resources for and there advantages. The literature review discuses the biogas as a recourse of energy in the world and its system. The third chapter presents the study methods included the experimental setup, experimental program, field measurements and lab analysis. A small unit was used to produce biogas size of 1500 L was fed by four types of organic waste: cow dung and food residues and cow dung mixed with the remains of food, poultry manure mixed with the remains of food, and has been studied and assess the effectiveness of the unit in the production of biogas in terms of the amount and quality of the gas output of the four organic waste each separately. Results obtained from this study showed that all samples produce biogas at ambient temperature. The food residues produce the biggest quantity of biogas comparing with other organic wastes (22.160Kg biogas/ during 14 days), then poultry manure mixed with food residues (20.125Kg biogas/ during 14 days), then cow manure mixed with food residues (16.980Kg biogas/ during 14days),then cow manure (16.600Kg biogas/ during 14 days ). The results indicated biogas has a heat value equals half heat value of commercial gas used in our homes. Moreover, results reveal a strong relationship between temperature and (Biogas production from cow manure, food residues, cow manure mixed with food residues and poultry manure mixed with food residues. According to study results, it can be said that small scale biogas units are not complicated, cheap, robust, easy to operate and maintain, and can be constructed with locally produced materials and suitable for biogas production for Palestinian rural families in order to cover its monthly requirement from natural gas and producing high quality organic fertilizer to improve crop yield. Therefore, the possibility of making use of biogas as a source of energy in Palestinian rural areas of small scale biogas units is recommended. This what the fourth chapter contained. According to the study results, several recommendations have been suggested including substituting daily energy requirement of natural gas by biogas in rural areas in order to save the costs, encouraging people to turn to the new recourses of energy, supporting and encouraging biogas technology in order to be used in Palestine by PNA with good cooperation between farmers and related sectors as energy, environment and agricultural sectors to improve and apply digesters in Palestinian rural areas, more researches and practical studies about applying biogas technology in Palestine should be conducted in order to improve biogas plant in Palestine, financial should be provided in this field.
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