Evaluation of the Performance Indicators for Safety reuse of Treatment Greywater in Northern West Bank

Discussion Committee: 
Prof. Marwan Hadad /Supervisor
Dr. Heba Al-Fares / Co-Supervisor
Dr. Orwa Houshia / External Examiner
Dr. Hassan Abu Qa’ud / Internal Examiner
Prof. Marwan Hadad /Supervisor
Dr. Heba Al-Fares / Co-Supervisor
Abeer Afif Jomma
The conventional groundwater sources supply in Palestine is vulnerable and scarce. Among potential alternative sources of supply is greywater which usually comprises 50–80% of residential wastewater. The aim of this research is to assess the long and short term impacts and social acceptance of onsite GWTPs. Performance indicators were used for assessing the quality and efficiency of the execution of treated greywater reuse stations in the North West Bank. Six home gardens from Jenin and Tubas governorates used treated greywater (constructed wetland system) for fruit tree (citrus and olive) and fodder (sorghum) plantations were assessed. A field survey (Questionnaires) were designed for the beneficiaries. Data was collected and analyzed using Excel and SPSS package. The short term indicator included greywater quality parameter before and after treatment during the period from June and July 2015. pH , TDS, Na+ ,Ca2+ ,Cl- ,BOD ,PO42+ and SO42-fall within the Palestinian standard for treated wastewater (2012). The average were 7.5, 1024.27, 128.2, 65.6, 224, 178, 7.69 and 139 respectively. While Mg2+ ,NO-3and COD were higher than the standard. The average were 288.3, 77.8 snd 400.8respectively The long term indicator includes greywater treatment result in 2011 carried out by North Agriculture Research Centre NARC compared with the greywater treatment results in the year 2015 and the impact of irrigation with treated greywater on chemical properties of the soil. During 2015, the efficiency of total coliform removal was 33.3% compared to 87 % in 2011. The decrease was 53.3%. In 2015, the efficiency of E .coli was 37.3% compared to 55.3 % in 2011. The decrease was 18%. The efficiency of BOD was 70.8 in 2015 compared to 75.8 % in 2011. The decrease was 5%. The efficiency of EC was 9.8 % in 2015 compared to 27.3 % in 2011. The decrease was 17.5%. The TDS decrease 16.3 % . The important parameters as BOD, TDS, EC, and E .coli showed a decrease in the efficiency of the stations by time, but it remains within the accepted Palestinian standards . Three soil samples were collected from the garden irrigated with treated graywater at depth 0-30cm and 30-60cm copared with the control irrigated with fresh water. The results of the pH was 6.67 and for Ec was 2.65 which remains within the accepted Palestinian standards. The average concentrations of Zn, Cu, Cr and Mn were 3.3, 0.44, 0.69 and 5.16 respectively in soils were not significantly higher than control. The results also do not show any relationship between long time application of greywater and heavy metals accumulations in the soil. In total, 60% of individuals do not have information about greywater. The study shows that nearly 76% of the respondents face a water shortage and the same percent reported that water prices being a major constraint they have to deal with. The average number of seepage times is 4.6 and the average cost is 95 NIS per each time. This reflects the high cost of the seepage. Moreover, 33% of treatment units’ owners stated that the units need regular maintenance. About 71% of unit’s owners stated that the units increase crop production in the home garden. In addition, 89 % of them indicated the decrease in units efficiency by time. These results are inagreement with chemical analysis. The economic factor (37%) was limiting factor for dissemination of the treatment units among the communities. People’s satisfaction with the applied GWTPs was very promising, as the majority 71.4% of GWTPs beneficiaries are satisfied with the treatment stations.
Pages Count: