Estimation of Water Requirements for Livestock Production in Palestine

Discussion Committee: 
Dr. Jamal Abu Omar - Chairman
Dr. Hassan Abu Qaoud - Internal Examiner
Dr. Rateb Aref - Internal Examiner
Dr. Zakaria Salawdeh - External examiner
Dr. Jamal Abu Omar
Walid Irsan Ragheb Saleh
This study was conducted to estimate water consumption by local livestock. The animals concerned were cattle, sheep and goats. For each species the estimation was based on its physiological stages (age, pregnancy, and lactation), the geographic location, ecological zone and dry matter intake. Three types of water were estimated in order to reach total water use. The direct water intake (drinking water), water indirectly consumed (water used by the different field crops) and water used in processing local livestock carcasses. Regression equations and nutrition tables were applied in the estimation of DWI. The indirect water consumed by animals through feeds were estimated again, according to the physiological stages of animals, district and ecological zone. The water use efficiency of each crop concerned (wheat, barley, vetch, sorghum, sern, was determined. A proposed ration was suggested for each animal species and total amount of water was then estimated. The amounts of water spent in processing of animal carcasses were estimated. The study showed that the daily direct water intake by cattle classes was: 71, 16, 29 and 41L/day for a lactating cow, a calf, a heifer, and bulls, respectively. The direct water intake per day for sheep and goats classes were 9.1, 4.4, 4.1, 7.4, 8.5, 3.7, 3.72 and 6.32 L/day for a lactating ewe, a lamb, a replacement ewe, a ram, a doe, a replacement doe, a kid and a buck, respectively. It was suggested by this study that a 1kg of cattle ration required about 0.903 cubic meter for concentrated ration and 0.934 cubic meter for hay of water, while the water requirement for 1kg of sheep and goats ratio was 0,920 cubic meter. The daily water requirement per day (ration requirements) for classes of cattle were-17.18 9.89, 3.58, and 17 cubic meter for, lactating cow, a heifer, a calf and a bull, respectively. While this value for classes of sheep and goats were 1.9, 1.62, 1.62, 3.02, 1.62, 1.52, 0.97 and 2.6 cubic meter for a lactating ewe, replacement ewe, a lamb, a ram, a lactating doe, a replacement ewe, a kid and a buck, respectively. The total water requirement (direct water intake and water consumed through feed) per day was estimated by study to be 17.25, 9.92, 3.59 and 17.1 cubic meter for a lactating cow, heifer, a calf and a bull, respectively. While it was 1.93, 1.63, 1.63, 3.03, 1.63, 1.53, 0.98 and 2.61 for a lactating ewe, a replacement ewe, a lamb, a ram, a lactating doe, a replacement doe, a kid and a buck, respectively. The water used in processing was estimated to be 1100 liters per beef carcass and 270 liter per one carcass of sheep and goats. The total water requirements for all carcasses were 61580 cubic meters.
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