The Commerce And The Caliph State In Early Islamic Times From The Message To The End Of Ummayes State

Discussion Committee: 
Dr. Jamal Judeh
سحر يوسف القواسمي
This study discusses the relationship and role of the commerce in the Caliph State. This project is divides into five sections: THE FIRST SECTION: The Social And Cultural Conditions Of Merchants: It is apparent that the majority of merchants in the early Islamic Times were Arabs. In the Ummayes Times, the Arab merchants role weakened and was substituted for the Mawalyes. Furthermore, women, slaves, and clerks practiced trade activities. Merchants had good relations with all sectors of the public. That helped them to play administrative and political roles in the state. They also have an important role in the social and cultural life of people. That's is, they were so educated that they were reporters, postmen, and journalists They carried people's messages, and helped in spreading the Islam in areas never reached before by Muslims. Moreover, they took part in solving many financial problems of their society and worked as Iiazon between the public and the rulers. THE SECOND SECTION: The Economic Status Of Merchants: This section discusses the financial resources and abilities of merchants, and their investments in buying lands and properties. Their wealth had been shown clearly in their levels of living, clothes, and wives jewellery. That good situation gave them an advantage to establish business similar to the bank works, people and government used to borrow from them. THE THIRD SECTION : The State Officials And Trade: It has been found out that most of the state men (Officials) and rulers were merchants in the first half of the century of the Islamic appearance. The prophet Mohammed (PBUH) was a merchant. Those merchants supported the Islamic Da'waa (message) and contributed in building the state. Therefore, the state supported them. For example, it chose its ambassadors and messengers from them, also it gave them high positions in the state. THE FOURTH SECTION: Merchants And The State Economical Institutions: Merchants, officials, and notables had benefited from Beit-Elmal (the State Save). They could borrow money from it and make business. They sometimes bought debts or goods .cheaper than their real prices and sell them. After the spread of Islam, there were many commercial centers for the public and private people. The trade had flourished and made a big progress. There were various types of goods. The government issued a new tax called: the tenth. Dealers were requested to pay such taxes. THE FIFTH SECTION: Merchants And Jihad: Merchants have a big role in the Islamic spread and Jihad. They got benefit from that because new markets would be open in front of them, and thus new benefits and activities. The leaders of the armies focused on commercial markets and centers when invading a new area .That situation explained why merchants used to call for peace and (suluh). Also, they contributed much in supporting the armies with food, weapons, and money. Another important role for them was to work as spies for Islamic armies leaders. Merchants also, politically neutral. They dealt with hostile rivals equally concerning selling and buying goods. Thus, they were allowed to enter all countries and war areas without permission. All the varies Islamic treaties supported that.
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