Causes of Rift to Violence of Arab Revolutions of 2011 “ Egypt and Yemen as Examples”

Discussion Committee: 
Dr.Raid Neirat/supervisor
Prof. Ayman Talal/external examiner
Dr. Othman Othman/internal examiner
Dr.Raid Neirat/supervisor
Majid Mohammed Ibrahim Rawajbeh
The study objective is to identify the causes that led to the transformation of the revolutions in the "Arab spring" to violence, and prevented the completion of the democratization process, through studying two different cases in terms of structure and components, these are Egypt and Yemen, despite the peacefulness of the revolutions in the beginning, it turned into political violence in both cases with different levels and nature of the problem of violence. The study raised many questions concerning the reasons for the prevalence of the phenomenon of violence in both cases, despite the different social, economic and political structure. The researcher assumed that the main reason of the prevalence of violence in the countries of the "Arab spring" is due to the inability of the political powers to consensus on a national programmer of action capable of neutralizing anti-revolutionary forces, and complete the democratization process, this dilemma is linked to several reasons chiefly State structure in both regimes, and the role of the army and distributional policies of both regimes, which made a clear imbalance in the relationship of the political forces with each other and with the political regime, which was originally built on the base of political exclusion and security dealings but not political. The study follows two main approaches; the first is the descriptive analytical approach in order to analyses the phenomenon of violence in Egypt and Yemen, as well as the case study approach, where violence is dealt with as one case in both regimes, and to identify the determinants of the phenomenon and its relation to the internal and external environment, particularly the State and its internal management and distributive policies, foreign policy, and the extent of conversion of these relationships into foster environment of political violence. The study is divided into three main chapters in order to examine the components of the hypothesis and its problem, the first chapter including an introduction and theoretical framework, where the major theories of political violence and its relationship to the management of the internal relationships within the State were addressed. The researcher uses the array of the doorways and theories to explain the phenomenon of political violence: the introduction is associated with psychological factors for community members, that is based on the theory of relative deprivation, social analysis based on constructivist theory, also the third introduction is based on the theory of pluralism, the conflict between the Government and the opposition, in addition to the class conflict which is based on the theory of Marxism as the theoretical framework, where the researcher concluded that the political violence in the Arab world is a complex phenomenon that cannot be explained through one entryway, as it is connected to the general political space of the state, and the relationship between the State regime and the community. Chapter Two: the causes of the January revolution in Egypt transformation into political violence, where the researcher discussed the role of the State regime and the controlling powers in the management of the relationships within it that fueled political violence by focusing on the role of the army, the various political forces, as well as the distributional policies of the State, and how this flaw in this role or policies produced political violence. Chapter three: discussed the reasons behind the February revolution transformation into political violence in Yemen, focusing on two essential components; the first is related to the State policies and the relationship between the regime and the society, as well as the reflection of this problem on the relationship between the State and the regional and international environment, through a range of phenomena, such as tribe, and doctrine. The study find out that the reasons behind the transformation of the Arab spring into political violence, include the following: 1. The nature of the regimes in both countries, which were both central whether military or civilian structure. 2. Political parties and organizations do not agree on a compromise formula for managing the transition, adding to that the vulnerability of these groups and their conflicts. 3. Weak economic development programs, absence of distributive justice helped to widen the gap between rich and poor. The study, thus, concluded a set of recommendation, among which are the following: 1. All effective parties must reach common understandings and mechanisms, avoid contradictions and all forms of polarization, adopt harmonic speech instead of polarizing speech and confront polarization and ideological antagonism with all mechanisms that achieve social peace and provide sustenance. 2. The need to adopt reformatory economic policies, and improve the management of resources, and initiating procedures for redistribution of resources on a fair basis of social justice, and at the same time work on remedying emergency and chronic economic crisis and achieve comprehensive development and engaging communities in economic goals decision and control its implementation, and adopting policies of transparency in the management and allocation of resources. 3. Security solutions can not dampen the violence, on the contrary it fuels violence, democratic policies must therefore lead to the success of the democratization process, such as: a) Pluralism; the existence of pluralism allows actual competition between parties, as it relates to the process of peaceful transfer of power. b) Promote the art and the principles of diversity and acceptance of others' opinions, and opt for dialogue and understanding to overcome the obstacles of intolerance of opinion. c) Conducting periodic and genuine elections, to achieve a peaceful transfer of power. d) Freedom of the press and media and religious freedoms, and empower civil society institutions. 4. Separation of powers and the need for administrative reforms
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