Arabs in the North and middle of the Arabian peninsula before the Mission In the writings of Muslim historians until the middle of the fourth century AH/ Systematic study in religious life and beliefs

Discussion Committee: 
Dr.Adnan Mohammad Melhem/supervisor
Dr. Amer Najeeb/external examiner
Prof. Jamal Joudeh/internal examiner
Dr.Adnan Mohammad Melhem/supervisor
Hana' Ahmad Abdulrahim Musameh
The study reviewed an image of the religious life in the north and center of the Arabian Peninsula for eight of the Arab Muslim historians who lived in the third and fourth centuries AD and they are: Hesham Bin Al-Sae'b Al-Kalbi (D 204 AH/ 819 AD) , Abd Almalek Bin Hisham (D 218 AH/ 834 AD), Mohammad Bin Habeed Al-Baghdadi (D 245 AH/ 859 AD), Mohammad Bin Abdulah Al-Azraqi (D 250 AH/ 864 AD), Ahmad Bin Yahya Al-Balathey (D 279 AH/ 892 AD) , Ahmad Bin Abe Ya'qoob (D 292 AH/ 905 AD) , Mohammad Bin Jareer Al-Tabari (D 310 AH/ 922 AD) and Ali Bin Al-Hussein Al- Mas'oody (D 346 AH/ 957 AD) and it includes also their political, cultural and social backgrounds and the sources from which the historians gleaned their stories , and the study showed that the historians presentation about the Aravs religions was in randomly and sporadic way through the display of the history of the Arabs in general and the Quraysh in particular. The Study start the presentation by defining the religion linguistically and idiomatically that religion linguistically is subordination and obedience where idiomatically means strong belief in invisible power worthy of obedience and worship. The Arabs were divided in their religions between believer in Monotheistic and heavenly religions such as Judaism, Christianity, Hanifiyyah, Mandaeism, and Aagianism (Mazdaism) , and believers in ground religions such as paganism. The study pointed out that the Judaism is one of the heavenly monotheistic religion sent by Moses, peace be upon him supported with the Torah, and it spread in the north and center of the Arabian peninsula and limited in some of the Hijaz Oases, the Arab Jews did there Religious rituals like praying towards Jerusalem which start by Blowing the trumpets, sanctification Saturday and praying a lot in this day and fasting on Ashura. The Historians called Christianity on Jesus Followers and who believed in hem and in Bible, and it spread across the north of the island between the Arab tribes Bahra' Baliy, Bani Lakhm, and Salich which condemned the loyalty to the Byzantine Empirem and it spread in the center of the Arabian Peninsula in the provinces of Hijaz, Najd and Yamama, so the spread was slight and limited in some of the tribes leaders and the pro Christians. The religious rituals for the Christian begins with baptism and hold prayers towards the east and preceded by a ring bells and fasted for fifty years and seek to draw closer to God by monasticism and seclude in Churches and they differ in their feasts like Easter, Feast of the Cross, and palm Feast. Also this study include the Hanifiyyah which is the religion of Abraham, peace be upon him, and the sources showed that Arabs originally are hanafis followed Abraham, peace be upon him but Amr bin lohay changed the Hanifiyyah religion and called for polytheism, and the study pointed to the emergence of group of Hanafis in the second half of the sixth century AD like Zayd Bin Amr Bin Nofayl , and their rituals are summarized in the deification and worshiping alone, refusing worship idols and calling for monotheism. Another religion included in the study is the Majusiya (parsee) which is an ancient Persian religion based on The sanctification of the planets and firi, and Al-Ya'qooby and the Almas'oodi pointed out the relation of parsee with Zoroaster (Zaradusht) (D 581 AD) who called for the worship of one God who is Ahuramazda and he composed a holy book called Afestazend and he included the principles and religious laws in it. The spread of parsee was slight in the North and central of the Arabian Peninsula and it limited in Tameem tribe which their homes extended from Najd to the border with Bahrain, and their rituals are summarized in the glorification and consecrated of fire and make offerings and taking their homes as holy place, celebrating their feasts such as Nowruz feasts, and festival. The study include also the ground religions which represented in Arabs worship of idols and fetishes, also it dealt with the definition of the ground religions and stated that the historians used these two terms to indicate any thing worshiped beyond God, and all the resources agreed that the first to introduce the worship of idols to the Arabian Peninsula is Amr Bin Lohay Al- Khuzae'l who was Master in his people and they followed his religion. Some of these idols and fetishes were known in the north and central of the Arabian Peninsula such as Al- Lat, Al- Uzza, Manat, Hubal, Suwa', Al- Akaysar, Wud, Dhul Khalasa, lsaf, and Naila. And Arabs presented to it all aspects of sanctification and worship till it were demolished campaign launched by the prophet, peace be upon him to destroy the idols in the Arabian Peninsula after the conquest of Mecca on (8 AH/ 637 AD). The stud examined the houses of worship and temples which are places dedicated for the religious religious rituals, and it pointed out that the Jews received their religious teachings in private homes know as Beth Midrash or Beit Madares, and it was under the supervision of the clergy who knew between Arabs as rabbis. The Christians practiced there religious rituals in churches and monasteries, and it was under the clergy whom graded in the career ladder from patriarch to the Monk and Deacon. And the parsee practiced their religious rituals in the atashkada fire temples which were Renewed in the era of Zoroaster and it was under the supervision of the priests and on top was the mobbed moabadan- moabad, herbad, and Alketn who serves the temples. It was pointed in the resources that Arabs practiced their religious rituals in the idols houses which was spread in the north and central of the Arabian peninsula and on the top is the Ka'bah, Al- Lat house, Al- Uzza house, Dhul Khalasa house, Al- Akaysar house, and the resources dilate upon Ka'bah which get the respect and reverence of Arabs, and it reviewed the phases construction of Ka'bah since the first construction by the Angels to the renewal of it by Quraysh before the mission. The study discussed also the religious rituals of Arabs before lslam and on top of these rituals is Hajj (pilgrimage) and Umra (minor pilgrimage) which expressed in Talbiyah and Ehlal, Tawaf, stand in Arafat and Muzdalifah, Ramy al- Jamarat, present sacrifice to commemorate the story of Abraham Peace be upon him. The study pointed out that Arabs Practiced prayer in different circumstances that their prayer in Ka'bah was a combination of yelling and whistling and clapping According to verse (And their worship at the (holy) House is naught but whistling and hand – clapping. Therefore (it is said unto them): Taste of the doom because ye disbelieve. (Anfal 35). The study confirmed that the Arabs draw near to their gods by offerings which include all kinds of offerings and they also committed themselves by vows. Among the most famous vows is the animals which were locked up on behalf of the gods like Sae'ba, Al- wasela, and Al- Ham. Also the study viewed the religious functions sadana that Arabs assigned Servants (Sadan) for each ido house and they gained a high status and they kept it and made it Hereditary among their sons, and pre- lslam Sadana linked to Qusay bin Kilab Sons. The study also discussed the role of priests in the religious life that they serve as clergy, judges and referees between Arabs and spokesmen of goddess, and there was a number of priests and priestesses have been known in the Arabian peninsula. Another topic which is discussed in this study is Al-Nas' (Postponement (of a sacred month) that Arabs postponed and preceded the sacred months to suites their business which is associated with pilgrimage, and Bano Kenan were in charge of Al-Nas' (Postponement (of sacred month) until lslam. The study pointed out that the Arabs wanted to know their future by pray for gods , restorted to Al-istiqsam arrows , Turuq , Tira and Al-qiyafah.
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