Apostasy/Historical Study of The Narratings of Mohammad Ibn Ishaq(151AD/768BC) And Sayf Ibn Omar(180 AD/796 BC) And Mohammad Ibn Omar AL-Waqedi(207 AD/822BC)

Discussion Committee: 
Prof. Jamal Juda/supervisor
Dr. Othman Tall/external examiner
Dr. Adnan Melhem/internal examiner
Prof. Jamal Juda/supervisor
Wijdan Jameel Ali Jaber
The study of Ridda Movement (Apostasy) through the narrators who spoke about it and upon whose narrations the historical resources in the first four Hijri centuries relied is considered very essential. Among those narrators was Urwa Ibn Al Zubair Al Asdi Al Madani (94 Hijri/712 A.D.) who had a good relationship with Bani Umayyeh and whose narrations were mentioned without Isnad (Reference). Another one was Muhammad Bin Muslem (124 Hijri/741 A.D.) who is from Bani Zahra in Quraish. Bin Muslem enjoyed a unique status among Bani Umayyeh so much so that he some people said that his friendship with the kings has ruined him. Bin Muslem worked as a judge for Bani Umayyeh and he was very interested in Isnad. A third narrator was Muhammad Bin Isaq Al Madani Al Madtlabi Al Qurashi (151 Hijri/768 A.D.) who was from Ain Al Tamer; Khalid Bin Al Waleed captured his grandfather, Yasar. Bin Isaq was accused of being Qadari (Fatalism), some said he was Mu’tazel, others said he was Shiite. His relationship with the Umayyad Sate was not good. Among the narrators was Abu Makhnaf Al Azdi Al Kofi (157 Hijri/773 A.D.). Historical information about him was concentrated on those of the Salaf until the end of the Umayyad State especially the information about Iraq. There have been no narrations that talked about his relationship with the Abbasid State, and it was said that he is Shiite. In this study, the researcher also talked about another narrator, Saif Bin Omar Al Tamimi Al Kofi (180 Hijri/796 A.D.) as one of the narrators of the Ridda whose relationship with the State was rather mysterious. Another narrator in the Ridda period was Al Waqidi Muhammad Bin Omar, Mawla Bani Aslam. He was Madani and had a good relationship with the Abbasid State where he worked as a judge for the Ma’moon, but he was accused of being Shiite and some said that his method of narrations relied on connecting the historical event with geography. He also followed the collective Isnad and used to talk about one text, influenced by Al Madina School. In the second chapter, the researcher talked about the definition of Apostasy (ridda) in language and dictionary. Among the definitions of this word is that it means abandoning something, deprivation or prohibition. While other meanings suggest that Al Murtad is the one who prohibits Zakat, the one who does not pray, the non-believer, and he who claims to be a prophet. In this chapter also, the researcher talked about the beginnings of Ridda some of which happened during the time of Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, such as that of Al Aswad Al Ansi, Musailama Al Kathab and Tulaiha Bin Khuwailed Al Asdi. Other Ridda events took place
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