Tajarab Al-Umam Wa Ta'aqub Il Himam, For Ahamad Bin Mohammad Bin Ya'qub Miskawayh (421H/1030A.D.) A Study of Cultural Terms During the Abbasid Period (132-369H/749-979A.D.)

Discussion Committee: 
Dr. Adnan Melhem/supervisor
Dr. Othman Tall/external examiner
Prof. Jamal Jouden/internal examinr
Dr. Adnan Melhem/supervisor
Saida JadAllha Ahmad Aza'r
This study is entitled ‘Ennuciation of civilization in the book of Experinces of Nations and Successions of Determination’ for Miskawayh - Abu 'Ali Ahmad Ibn Mohammad Ibn Ya'qoub ( 320 – 421 Hijri / 932 – 1030 A.D) who was a historian, philosopher, author and thinker. He emerged in the middle of the fourth hijri century. Early in his life he was interested in studying chemistry, medicine and plants. On the other hand, he gave his main and full interest to history sciences, philosophy and literature. Mosqaway ahmade close relationships with the rulers and statesmen of the Bowayhi country ( 334 Hijri / 945 A.D) – ( 447 Hijri / 1055 A.D). He accompanied Abu Mohammad Al-Hussain Ibn Mohammad Al-Mehlabi (352 Hijri / 960 A.D), He was his companion, his librarian and his clerk . Miskawayh stayed in his service until he died. After that, he worked in irrigation for Abu Al-Fadel Mohammad Ibn Al-Hussian Al-'Ameed (366 Hijri / 970 A.D) the minster of the Prince Rukn Al-Dawla Al-Bowyhi Abu 'Ali Al-Hasan Ibn Bowyh, and he was his companion, librarian and the preceptor and mentor of his son Abu Al-Fateh Ibn Mohammad Ibn Al-'Ameed (336 Hijri / 976 A.D). Then, he contacted with the Prince Adud Al-Dawla Al-bowyhi Fankhswera Ibn Al-hasan Ibn Bowyh (372 Hijri / 976 A.D), and he was his companion, librarian and secretary of his treasury (Amin bayt Al-mal). Miskawayh continued his services in the bowhyis princes court and ministers in which he gained their trust and admiration. His experience is considered to be an enrichment of his intellectual life. As a result his philosophical, literary and historical works were increased at that time. Miskawayh wrote many books of philosophy such : Tahdeb Al-Khlaq (Refinement of Morals) , Al-Fawzayen ( the Two Winnings ), Tarteb Al-Sa'adat and other more. In science, there are: Tarkib Al-bajat fe Al-'Ate'emah wa Al-'Ashrebah and Al-Jami'. In literature, he wrote : Ons Al-Fared, Al-Sayer, Al-Mostawfi ( selected poems) and many other books. His book " Tajarub Il-Umam wa Ta'aqub Il-himam " ( Experiences of Nations and Successions of Determination) is considered to be one of the most important historical resources that have recorded the history of the Bowyhi state, and decumented living evidences for details about its existence, development and expansion details. It is also considered to be an accurate document for the overall political, social, economical and ideological developments which he particularly experienced in Iraq. The book included specific information, and distinctive analyses about the Abbasid state since its rise ( 132 Hijri / 749 A.D) till the year (369 Hijri / 979 A.D). Probably the most significant enlightenment Miskawayh left in his book " Tajarub Il-Umam wa Ta'aqub Il-himam " is that he has recorded most of the political, social and economic terms used specially in his time, and generally in the Abbasid era. Those terms that represented historical significance depth, in addition to its affects origins, and relationship to history movement, and its connection to man and place. In politics, different terminologies were emerged upon rise and fall of nations; such as ruler titles their deputies’, army and warriors, administrative job, various jobs, doctrines and parties, awards and the sanctions and many other various jobs. In social life, many terms arose, reflecting the development of the Abbasid society during the Bowyhi period, like the ones which highlighted issues concerning clothes, furniture, living means, foods and drinks, amusement, and decoration and its tools. In economy, different terms were used, in which the describing the Abbasid society during the Bowyhi era, such terms dealt with commerce and prices, weights and pints, industry, navigation and fishing, animals and their foods, in addition to different professions.
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