In Situ Sheep Ruminal Degradation Kinetics of Crude Protein and Fiber for two Agricultural By-Products in Palestine

Discussion Committee: 
Prof. Jamal Abo Omar / Supervisor
Dr. Jihad Abdallah / Co-Supervisor
Prof. Ayed Salama /External Examiner
Dr. Maen Samara / Internal Examiner
Prof. Jamal Abo Omar / Supervisor
Dr. Jihad Abdallah / Co-Supervisor
Omar Tahseen Mohammad Hamed
Two agricultural by-products (crude olive cake, OC and a mix of green house wastes of tomato and cucumber, GHW) used for sheep nutrition in rural communities in Palestine were evaluated for ruminal dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation kinetics. Two bags each containing 5 g ground forage were incubated in the rumen of two ruminally cannulated Assaf rams for 4, 8, 16, 24, 48 and 72 h. Rate and extent of ruminal digestion were estimated. Significant differences between by-product types were observed in rapidly soluble and potentially degradable fractions, and degradation rates of DM, CP, ADF and NDF. The rapidly soluble DM, CP, ADF and NDF fractions were 16.19, 15.21, 10.64 and 14.06% for GHW, and 7.2, 6.6, 6.0 and 5.62% for OC. The potentially degradable DM, CP, ADF and NDF fractions, respectively, were 55.82, 62.3, 49.4 and 55.09% for GHW, and 47.6, 44.26, 46.34 and 48.53% for OC. The DM, CP, ADF and NDF disappearance in GHW were 47.3, 55.7, 40.39 and 40.7 at 24 h, 53.58, 67.45, 47.84 and 45.26 at 48 h, 65.38, 72.7, 54.96 and 57.95 at 72 h. for olive cake 34.99, 25.66, 32.80, and 32.90 at 24 h, 46.44, 33.87 42.44, 41.98 at 48 h, 49.21, 40.31, 47.39 and 48.19 at 72 h. The disappearance of all tested nutrients was higher (P<0.05) in GHW compared to OC. The effective degradability (ED) of DM and CP were also higher (P < 0.05) for GHW than OC. Taking these findings into consideration, one can propose using both by-products, together or separately as part of ruminant rations. According to their degradability, they can be introduced in these rations as part of roughage (wheat and barley straw). However, the GHW can be incorporated in ruminant rations as part of good quality roughage (legume hay).
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