Marwan Ben Mohammed (132H/ 749 A.D), A Historical Study of the Dimensions of Struggle Over Power

Discussion Committee: 
Prof. Jamal Joudeh
Hassan M. Hassan Darawsheh
Abstract Marwan Ben Mohammed belongs to the Marwani House, the Ummayed family. His grandfather Marwan Ben al-Hakam was the founder of the Marwanis' caliphate. His father, Mohammed Ben Marwan, was the wali (governor) of Euphrates Peninsula. He was also its emir and was known for his bravery, good morals and boldness. Concerning year of birth, historians have differed on it. Some said he was born in 70H. While others said that he was born in 72H. Still others said that he was born in 76H. His mother was Umm Walad. However, historians also differed on her name and nationality. Marwan Ben Mohammed was killed in 132H. And some said in 133H. in Egypt. Marwan Ben Mohmmed was known for many titles which still chare him until today. Two of his titles were Al-Himar and Al-Ja'di. He was described as a brave knight, well-versed in political techniques and its branches. He was also very much cultured. His rise began in 105H., thanks to his large-scale military campaigns in the heart of Romans' Land, thus qualifying him for leadership of Armenia and Azerbiagan in 114H. He was appointed by Caliph Hisham Ben Abdel Malik (died in 125H.). As of that year, Marwan's history began as one of the important pillars of the Ommayed state. Marwan Ben Mohammed controlled the caliphate in 127H. after calling for revenge against the killers of Al-Walid Ben Yazid (died 126H.). His killers were Al-Yamaniyeen, al-Qadariyeen and the Ummayeds. However, immediately after taking over power, he began to face rebellions. First, there was the Yamaniyah rebellion in Greater Syria led by the leader of Al-Yamaniyah at the time. He was Thabet Ben Na'im Al-Juthami in 127H. But Marwan was able to eliminate the heads of Al-Yamaniyah. However, he was challenged, after that, by Suleiman Ben Hisham Ben Abdel-Malik in 127H. Instigated by Al-Yamaniyah which persuaded him that he deserved to be the caliph more than Marwan. Again Marwan managed to quell him and all rebellions which erupted in the Greater Syria. However, the rebellions continued unabated in Greater Syria. Tribal faraticism erupted in Iraq and Al-Yamaniyah stood and supported Abdallah Ben Omar, the Wali, removed from his post, by Marwan, in Iraq. In his place, Marwan appointed An-Nadhr Ben Sa'ed Al-Hurshi along with Al-Qaisiyah. At the same time, Al-Yamaniyah, in Khorasan, exploited these rebellions mounted against Marwan and declared muting against Nasr Ben Siyar, Wali of Khorasan. To face this muting and weaken the Yamaniyah authority, Nasr Ben Siyar brought back Al-Harith Ben Sareej to Khorasan, at the time exiled (deported) to lands beyond the River due to his rebellion against the Ummayeds and his violation of the principle of coercion which they had adopted as a basis for their state. However, Nasr's effort failed because Alharith Ben Sareej allied with Al-Karmani, leader of Al-Yamaniyah in Khorasan, against Nasr Ben Siyar. There was also a tribal war taking place in Egypt, Andalus and Maghreb against the Walis of Marwan Ben Mohammed. The Ummayyed history had never had such successive rebellions as it had had during the rule of Marwan Ben Mohammed. When tribalism erupted against his in the aforementioned governorates, the Khawarij also rebelled against him in Iraq, Khorasan and Hijaz. The most dangerous rebellions were those of Ad-Dahak Ben Qais e-Shibani in Iraq in 127H., Abdallah Ben Yehya and Al-mukhtar Ben Awf in Yemen and Hijaz. There were not only rebellions by Al-Khawarj. There was also Abdallah Ben Mu'awiyah's rebellion in 127H. However, it was defeated. Ben Mu'awiyah, subsequently, fled to mountainous regions when he established an independent state which became a safe haven for all those wanted by Marwan Ben Mohammed who in the end put an end to it in 130H. This study examined the role of Al-Qadariyah during Marwan Ben Mohammed's rule, and their role in putting an end to the Ummayyed Caliphate. It also researched his stance towards it. It played the role of instigation against Marwan's rule and worked to end the rule of Bani Ummayeh. Against the backdrop of Marwan's confrontations of all these events, and strifes, the Abbasid call was becoming stronger and was working in secret. This continued unitl the emergence of Abu Muslim Al-Kharasani in 127H. He was the military commander of the Abbasid rebellionin Khorasan which fell under his control. Despite Marwan Ben Mohammed's efforts to abort this movement through the arrest and killing of Ibrahim Ben Mohammed who had led the Abbasid rebellion. However, all that failed to pay off. This rebellion was able to defeat the Ummayed army in Az-Zab buttle in 132H. after the tribes' leaders in army abandoned Marwan Ben Mohammed. After his defeat, Marwan Ben Mohammed fled from one country to another until his killing at the hands of the abbasid in Buwaiser in the eland of Egypt in 132H. Accordingly, that event marked the end of rule by the Ummayeds due to the many rebellions and strifes. Had there been a leader, other than Marwan, he would not have steadfast and preserved the caliphate for five years (127-132H). Due to all these events, a new era had began, the era of the Abbasid state.
Pages Count: