Image of Hajjaj Bin Yousuf AL-Thaqafi (d 95 AH/ 713 AD) in the Works of Muslim Historians. Through Fourth Century H)/Tenth – Century AD, A Historical Study

Discussion Committee: 
Dr. Adnan Mohammad Melhem/supervisor
Dr. Abdel Rahman Mou'rabi/external examiner
Dr. Amer Qoubaj/internal examiner
Dr. Adnan Mohammad Melhem/supervisor
Nour AL-Deen Mohammad Fares
The researcher discussed the image of AL-Hajaj bin –Yousuf AL-Thaqafi according to four historians who lived in the third and fourth centuries A.H/the ninth and tenth centuries A.D ‚ They are: ALbalathry, Abu-Bakr and Ahmad bin-Yahya (d.279A.H/842A.D), AL-Ya'goubi, Ahmed bin-Ishaq, Ibn-Ja'far (d. 292 A.H/ 904A.D), AL-Tabari, Abu ja'far, Mohammad bin Jareer (d. 310A.H/921A.D), AL-Masoudi, Abu AL-Hasan and Ali bin AL-Hassein (d. 346 A.H /957 A.D). The researcher discussed their lives and their political, social. He aimed at drawing an accurate image of AL-Hajaj as it came from the historical resources. The historians discussed the life of AL-Hajaj and his bringing up and they all agreed that his name was AL-Hajaj bin-Yousuf AL-Thaqafi and his nickname was "Abu Mohammad" and he belonged to the tribe of "Thaqeef" in AL-Taif but they neglected the date of his birth, while the other resources mentioned that his birth was between (40- 45 A.H / 660 -665 A.D).They emphasized that his birth was in AL-Taif. The researchers talked about his family and mentioned his mother and father. He had seven wives and he had five children. He also had three brothers and one sister. They talked about his appearance‚ They all agreed that he was short with weakness in sight‚ They also talked about his manners. He didn't eat much, especially in Ramadan.They also mentioned that he liked certain kinds of food. They were interested in his character and mentioned his punishment of the people who disagreed with him. They also talked about his education and they emphasized that he was interested in teaching the kids in AL-Taif and his ability of an effective and eloquent style in his orations. They talked about his contact with the Umayyad Caliphs and emphasized his participation with his father with Umayyad army in fighting the enemies of the Umayyads, They also mentioned Abdul-Malik bin-Marwan's appointment for him as a leader for Iraq and Hijaz in (65- 86 A.H/685-705 A.D) and the continuation of leadership in Iraq until the period of AL-Waleed bin- Abdul Malik (86-96 A.H /705- 714 A.D). They also mentioned his role in stepping down Omar bin-Abdul Azis for ruling AL-Madina. The historians discussed his attitude towards the revolutions against the Umayyad state in Iraq and Hijaz‚ They emphasized his role in destroying Abdulah bin AL-Zubair(d.73 A.H / 692 A.D) and AL-Khawarij revolutions between (75-76 A.H/ 694-695 A.D) ‚ They also referred to the revolution of bin AL-Mugheera (77 A.H / 696 A.D). They also talked about the administrative and economic organizations that were set up during AL-Hajaj era and they also talked about his role in appointing workers. They also talked about his battles on the eastern part of the Umayyad state and they mentioned his role in security and his concern and his great interest in the Holy Quran and his role in punctuating it. They also talked about his interest in agriculture and his role in widening the farming areas in Iraq‚ They also emphasized his role facing the economic crisis that the Umayyad Caliphate suffered from and his role of in rescuing it from financial collapse. They also talked about his death‚ They said that he had died because of pain in his belly and they emphasized that his death was in a city called "wasitt" in (95 A.H /714 A.D).
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