The Feoff in the Stem of Islam

Discussion Committee: 
Dr. Jamal Mohammed Dauod Judah
Belal Ahmad Mahmoud Draghmeh
This research will talk about the feoff in terms of language and idiom in the periods of Byzantines, Islamic and the Arab periods. Then we will shed light on feoff in the periods of prophet Mohammed (PBUH) and his great followers. Also we will talk about its political, economic and social effects Types of feoff appeared in old civilizations like Byzantine for exploitation, owning and military. These types also appeared in Persian time as an example of gifts from kings to the special sectors in the society. In pre- Islamic period Arabs knew feoff in Yemen, Al Hirah and Al Hijaz where lands were given by kings to their followers and relatives. But in Al Hijaz these lands were just like shields for the kings and tribe leaders. When Islam came the inheritance of these lands moved to the society of Islam, and the prophet’s (PBUH) policy during that time contained foe off especially in dealing with kings and leaders of the tribes in order to encourage them to enter Islam. At the same time, the Prophet supported his friends and relatives until they became kings in the Arab region. The great followers of Mohammed went on his policy as he was their symbol in order to enlarge the region of Islam. Also during the Umayyad period feoff became bigger and became a part of the country’s policy as it was in Mohammed’s. The Umayyad kings gave their supporters lands and took them from their opponents. There is no doubt that the sectors in Mohammad’s period were the same after his period and so he and his followers supported the kings the merchants, the tribe leaders and the rich at that time. On one hand these people still rich; on the other hand the people of the middle sectors were poor. When the belief of Islam came, it played a very important role in stability of the properties when Mohammed declared that who entered Islam can obtain properties. Umayyad kings applied also that rule in dealing with dispute. Feoff left a lot of political, social and economical results in the periods we mentioned. the political results were presented in finding a new community which was politically powerful and this had bad effects on the kings, and we can notice that these communities controlled the countries after that especially in Persian, Byzantine, and in Umayyad period. According to the economical and social effects, new things were introduced to the society like a large and an extended land owned by the kings followers, the rich, the merchants and the tribe leaders. And so this new sector was found by the feoff.
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