Entertainment Sessions At Caliphs Courts In The First Abbasid Period (132-232 Hijreh:750-847Ad)

Discussion Committee: 
Dr. Adnan Melhem/supervisor
Dr. Othman Tall/External Examiner
Prof. Jamal Joudeh/Internal Examiner
Dr. Adnan Melhem
Falastin Hassan Abu Zahou
Councils of Fun means: a group of people sitting next to the King or the ruler or the person in charge, in a specific position and specific sitting way that entertains and amuses him, where the seated person takes into account a group of decencies and principles enacted by the authorities. The Abbasid state during the first Abbasid period, lived a life of fun and luxury from the beginning of the Mahdi until the end of the reign of Caliph Al-Watheq, due to the increasing wealth of the state resulting from the discipline of its affairs, and involvement of the Persians in the Abbasi community, who are known since ancient times of their tendency to the fun and luxury. The researcher presented a study of the most important sources and references of the study, which were represented in the study of historical sources, literary, and biographical, biographies, philosophy, and interpretation and geography books, as well as to study the leading linguistic and terminological dictionaries, Arab ones or foreign, which belong to the period of study. The researcher also provided a study of the most important references and recent studies of the Arabs or orientalists, in addition to several encyclopedias, and modern dictionaries. The researcher reviewed the most prominent manifestations of fun in the palaces of the Abbasid caliphs in their first period, and the most important manifestations were the slaves, women slaves, who perfected various arts including poetry, singing, dancing and playing, that enabled them to capture the hearts of the caliphs and gentlemen, so the boards and conservatories and courtyards of the palace were filled with them, as was the throats of singers and playing musical instruments diligent role in spreading the joy and bustle throughout the council. The Abbasids also took a great care of poetry that reached the extent of writing it on the pumice and clothes of headbands, T-shirts, handkerchiefs, and the fabrics and curtains, as well as the poems that were delivered and composed on the boards of the caliphs. The poems of the playfuls included immoral subjects that causes sedition such as flirting women in their poems along side with flirting the shavers, and the explicit invitation to obscenity and indecency, and hardly the Council is vacate of wine to the degree of intoxication or orgy, by this they emerge from the teachings of religion and morality and sobriety of the ruler. The caliphs were accompanied by boys, who were the heads of the servants, and many favored them over the women slaves, and then statrted the habit of flirting the boys and fonding of them, and then spread homosexuality, also accompanied the caliphs in their councils close friends called Al-Nadeem, and Nadeem: is the sidekick and friend and cup companion, some caliphs has committed putting a curtain separated them from the Nadeem, while others did not commit. The boards of fun enjoyed the presence of clowns and storytellers within the palace or in the outside, and the exercise of some games which can be summarized in the game of fishing, hunting, and race track, and playing with animals, especially the strong ones, in addition to theatrical shows like disguises shows, shadow and dolls games, and some of the caliphs mastered dice and chess, in addition to some throwing games, that the following games are the most important of it: the ball and scepter game, arrow game, and throwing hazelnuts game. The researcher explained the uniform of the councils of fun, and most common cosmetics used in these councils such as perfumes, Henna and jewels, also the research discussed the furniture and tools that decorated the boards of the Abbasid caliphs in the first age. The caliphs palaces exaggerated in the preparation of foods and banquets in various shapes and colors especially in this era of so-called Golden Age of apparent wealth, and an extension of its power. The researcher as well explained that the effects of extravagance and luxury reflected negatively in most cases on all aspects of life including political, social, economic, cultural and psychological, and all these factors has led, either combined or dispersed, the Abbasid Caliphate to the era of decadence, and then the era of the fall. The councils of fun resulted in the emergence of many strange and abnormal phenomena, also caused a rise in crime, murders, thefts, and the composition of class society in which the gap widened over the years, where the disadvantaged people lived in poverty, while the special class enjoyed a life of luxury, which led to the emergence of strife, revolutions and disturbances. The study pointed out the positions of the classes of the Abbasi society of the caliphs boards of fun, which consists of the upper class, that is the ruling class that holds the power in the country, and the middle class that were close to the upper class and lived from the gifts and the salaries of first-class "upper", and the working class were a mixture of various nations living under conditions varied between good and bad, and falls under each class a set of categories that differ in their views and reaction, and ways of dealing with caliphs councils of fun, depending on the political, economic and social circumstances of that era. The researcher also referred to the position of religious institutions of the councils of fun, religion suppressed the ways of play that led to debauchery and homosexuality, and their attitude differed about singing and listening to songs according to the situations and circumstances, it also diverged about singing whether allowed or forbidden, while the Shafi'i, Hanbali and Maliki denied and refuted playing and fun, Hanafi was less severe to some extent, regarding this issue. The position of the Mu'tazilah of fun was middle, as a lot of them liked singing, music and entertaining caliphs, while others kept away, and Mu'tazilah considered that a believer commits a sin such as adultery, drinking alcohol, stands in a status between the two places, and by this they mean that he is not a believer nor an unbeliever. The Alaweit Shiite denounced the whole attitudes of the authorities, and hostilities broke out between them. The position of ascetics and Sufis of entertainment was explicit invitations urging them to keep away from entertainment and manifestations believing its being one of the forbidden pleasures, and stayed away from mixing with the rich and the wealthy, as this group has sought to purge self-elimination of worldly desires. The researcher discussed the attitude of the security services regarding entertainment, and the task of the police required tracking the later entertainers and ramblers and putting them in prison, and the applying of sanctions against them on the other hand, the army's position was different, because fun and entertainment spread among the soldiers, and the morals of many of them corrupted, and they were indifferent towards caliphs entertainment and fun councils as long as they provide them with their salaries and livelihoods.
Full Text: 
Pages Count: