Bani Marin State: History; and It's Policy toward Andalusian Granada Kingdom and Christian Kingdoms in Spain (668-869 H / 1269-1465 A.D)

Discussion Committee: 
Dr. Adnan Melhim
Amer Ahmad Abdullah Hassan
The Barbarian Zinaty tribe of Bani Marin is a sample of the Beduin tribe, which could impose a new political and a tribal reality in the far Moroccan countries, That was due to the efforts of its leaders a long sixty years of struggle, This was also on the expense of the Mowahideen’s state (524-668 h./1130-1269 A.D) which started to vanish after the defeat in Oqab battle (609 h./1212 A.D) against the Spanish Christian Kingdoms. The Marins utilized the political, economical and security bad conditions of the Mowahideen’s State since the start of the seventeenth century (h), when the conflict over authority started and the Caliphs became dolls in the hands of the ministers, This weakened the state, threatened its external security and encouraged internal revolutions and muting movements, moreover this led to the separation of Hafseyeen in Tunis (627 h./1230 A.D), Bani Zayyan in Telmesan (633h./1235 A.D) and Bani Al-Ahmer in Granada (635h./1237 A.D), As a result, the Mowahideen State lost most of its assets in Morocco and Al-Andalus; meanwhile, the Marinians were going ahead in establishing their own state. The Marinians got into far Morocco in (610 h./1217 A.D) under the leadership of Prince Abdel-Haq (592-614 h./1195-1217 A.D). They could also rule over most desert areas of Morocco during the reign of Prince Abi Saeed Otman Ben Abdel-Haq. But their victories were stopped after the murder of Prince Mohammad Ben Abdel-Haq in (642 h./1245 A.D) by Al Mowahideen. However, his successor Prince Abu Bakr Ben Abdel-Haq (642-656 h./1245-1258 A.D) adopted the policy of fortifying internal front and reviewed his external policy. In order to do so, he held a truce with Mowahideen and showed loyalty for Hafseyeen in Tunis. During his reign, he extracted cities of Miknasa, Fez, Sala, Ribat al Fateh, Dera`, Sejelmasa and other southern areas. This forced the Mowahideen to pay dane-geld to Marinians. After that, Sultan Yaccob Ben Abdel Haq (656-685 h./1258-1284 A.D) could conquer Marakesh in (668 h./1269 A.D) and followed this conquer with submission of the tribes of Sus and Dera territories. He also defeated Bani Zayan in Wadi Isly near Wajdah (672 h.) and between (672-673 h.) the Marinians dominated Tanjah, Sabta and Sejelmasa, then the Marinian headed towards defending Kingdom of Granada against the Christian Spanish Kingdoms. Sultan Yaccob Ben Abdel Haq crossed four times towards Al-Andalus where he lunched fierce war against the Spanish achieving great victories. He obliged the Spanish people to yield and submit to his conditions. These achievements did not please the king of Granada Mohammad Al-Faqih (671-701 h./1272-1301 A.D) who was afraid that the Marinians might dominate his Kingdom specially when the Marinians allied with Bani Ashqilola the in-laws of Bani Al Ahmar and their rivals. Al Faqih invaded city of Malqa and allied with Bidro III, King of Aragon (1276-1283 A.D). He also allied with Bani Zayyan against Bani Marin. Sultan Yousef Ben Yaccob (685-706 h./1286-1306 A.D) took care about improving relationships with Granada. He gave up all the minor Marinian bases in Al-Andalus. He also transferred Bani Ashqilola to Morocco in 687 h./1288 A.D. This did not eliminate suspicious of Grenadians. So, Al Faqih – King of Granada allied with Sanshu king of Quishtala and occupied the city of Tarif (691 h./1292 A.D) the Granadians invaded Sabta (705 h./1305 A.D) during the reign of Mohammad III King of Granada while Christians occupied Gibraltar (709 h./1309 A.D). This was followed by peace conventions between Morocco and Granada on one hand, and Quishtala and Aragon on the other hand in 733 h./1333 A.D . After that, Prince Abu Malek Ben Sultan Abul Hassan Ali Elmarini held a four-year peace convention with Quishtala and Aragon, but the Marinian Army under the leadership of Sultan Abul Hassan Ali El marini (731-749 h./1331-1348) was defeated by the Spaniards in Tarif battle in (741 h./1340 A.D). As a result, he had to hold a long-term peace convention with Christian Kingdoms. The state of peace and security lasted also during the reign of Sultan Abu Anan Faris Elmarini (749-759 h./1348-1359 A.D). The Marinian relationships with both Granada and Christian Kingdoms were not disturbed except by the escape of Abul Fadl Mohammad, a brother of Sultan Abu Anan, to Quishtalah after he had been in Granada. This didn’t prevent exchanging diplomatic relations between Fez and Granada specially during the reign of Elghanei Bellah Mohammad Ben Al Ahmar (his first state 755-760 h./1354-1359 A.D). During the period of ministers’ domination (759-869 h./1358-1465 A.D), ministers and court officers controlled all the affairs of the state. Sultans became dolls in the hands of ministers as a result of their young age. The policy of the Marinian State tended towards the quality of court ties. The phenomena of political asylum a rose between both sides. Granada became a base of launch for those demanding the Marinian throne. This what happened with Sultan Abi Salem Ibrahim (his first state 760-762 h./1359-1361 A.D). And when Alghanei Billah Mohammad was dethroned in 760 h./1359 A.D he asylumed to Fez with his minister Lisaneddin Ibn El-Khatib. The relationships with Granada became tense during the reign of Sultan Abdilaziz Ibn Abil Hassan (767-774 h./1365-1372 A.D) when they demanded to hand Alganei Billah and his minister . When the Marinian Sultan refused, Granada started to interfere in the internal affairs of Morocco through making Abil Abbas Ahmad Ibn Abi Salem (his first state 776-786 h./1374-1384 A.D) as a sultan of Morocco. Granada also interfered through appointing the last Sultan of Bani Marin Abdel Haq Ibn Abi Saeed Otman (823-869 h./1420-1465 A.D). During the period of the domination of ministers, the ties between the Marinian State and the Christian Kingdoms ranged from the Quashtalian-Aragonian interference in the affairs of the Marinian State, to sign political and commercial treaties between both sides. Meantime, the Christian Kingdoms continued its aggressive policy towards Al-Andalus. Finally, the Marinian State could leave significant prints of civilization in all aspects of life, especially in ruling systems, architecture, and cultural, religious and scientific aspects. This was encouraged by the policy of the open-state and by the Sultans themselves; moreover, this state didn’t depend on any special political or religious thought.
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